What is ME?

ME is a fluctuating complex condition classified by the WHO as neurological.

Research has found evidence of gene dysfunction affecting many of the body’s systems including the immune system, neuroendocrine system, autonomic nervous system and muscles.

It can have a long term and disabling effect on people of all ages, sexes and ethnic groups. There were an estimated 13,500 people in Wales with the condition pre-pandemic – 10% are children under the age of 16.

What is it called?

ME has had many names but recently ME/CFS has become more common

ME – Myalgic Encephalomyelitis – means inflammation of the brain

CFS – Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – used by the medical profession as an alternative to ME or as an umbrella term for illnesses with fatigue as a major symptom

What causes it?

There is currently no single identifiable cause although for many the trigger is a virus, sometimes leading to an initial diagnosis of Post Viral Fatigue Syndrome (PVFS). Other triggers include certain vaccinations, toxins, pesticide exposure, surgery and major stressful life events.

These can appear to ‘cause’ the illness but are more likely to be just one factor which contributes to someone becoming unwell. Research is gradually discovering what is going wrong in the body but it is still unclear what the underlying cause is.

What are the symptoms?

Initially adult patients tend to complain of severe ‘flu-like’ symptoms, which are worse and longer lasting than a bout of flu, with sore throats and swollen glands, muscle and joint pain, mental fuzziness, sleep disturbance, exhaustion and many other symptoms.

Children and young people have similar symptoms but can have more headaches, disrupted sleep patterns, and stomach problems. Over time the pattern of the illness can change.


Many other medical conditions have similar symptoms, which can make diagnosis a challenge, but the distinctive characteristic of ME is that symptoms become worse after physical and mental exertion, although the reaction may be delayed by a day or more (post-exertional response) and a return to previous level of health can be unpredictable – called Post Exertional Malaise (PEM) or Post Exertional Symptom Exacerbation (PESE).

Symptoms fluctuate and there can be periods of remission and relapse leaving patients and families alike, confused and frustrated.

How long does it last?

Progress is difficult to predict. A small percentage of people make a complete recovery over time. Some reach 70-80% of previous level of health and are able to live a ‘normal’ life with adjustments, although this may take some years to achieve. The majority follow a fluctuating pattern ‘bad and better’ periods of health.

Although not unknown, continued deterioration is rare. About 25% remain severely disabled and in need of continued care and support. Young people are more likely to recover than adults, but some children do remain ill into adulthood.

Is there a cure?

There is currently no cure or treatment and what helps one person may not help another. This could be because there are a number of different conditions with similar symptoms (researchers talk about ‘sub-groups’) which might require different treatment.

What helps most in the early ‘acute’ stage of the illness is to take enough rest and not rush back to work or school too soon. Most people learn to ‘manage’ their condition by a combination of approaches which may include pacing, medication, lifestyle changes, diet and complementary therapies.

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