Food implications in central sensitization syndromes, by Elena Aguilar-Aguilar, Helena Marcos-Pasero, Maria P Ikonomopoulou and Viviana Loria-Kohen in J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(12), 4106 [doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124106] (This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in the Diagnosis, Prediction, Prevention, and Management of Fibromyalgia)
Fibromyalgia (FM), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are some of the central sensitization syndromes (CSSs). The complexity of their diagnosis, the high interindividual heterogeneity and the existence of multi-syndromic patients requires a multifaceted treatment.
The scientific literature is contradictory regarding the role of food in CSS, and evidence on the role of nutrition in MCS is particularly scarce. This review consists in gathering information about the current status of dietary recommendations (i.e., special dietary interventions, the role of additives, presence of micronutrient deficiencies, nutritional supplements and elimination of other nutrients and substances) and discussing the scientific evidence in depth to shed light on appropriate nutritional treatment managements for CSS patients. Current indications show that dietary modifications may vastly improve the patients’ quality of life at a low cost.
We suggest personalized treatment, taking into consideration the severity of the disease symptoms, quality of life, coexistence with other diseases, pharmacological treatment, changing clinical characteristics, nutritional status, energy requirements and food tolerances, among others, as the best ways to tailor specific dietary interventions. These approaches will partially overcome the lack of scientific and clinical research on MSC.
Patients should also be advised on the serious consequences of following dietary guidelines without a dietitian’s and clinician’s supervision.
‘It is striking that, despite the high prevalence of gastrointestinal and other diet-related problems and the impact nutritional treatment may have on these patients, none of these practical guides include dietary guidelines for the treatment of CSS patients’